S-055 Kirkuk, Iraq

 1 Caran eweney be fikrim bê, be ḥukmî temenekey xom le ʕadet û teqalidî Kerkûk jinhênan zor zor le êste xoștir û besîttir û asantir bû.
In earlier times, as far as I know, considering my age, marriage customs and traditions in Kerkuk were much nicer, simpler and easier.
 2 Meselen heç kesêk kitsêçî be dil baye, îtir eçûn bo xwazbînî, yekem car jinan eçûn bo pirs û mirs û ewana, îtîfaqyan ekird le gelyaneye-w, îtir, duway rojî duwatir bo pîyawan etsûn.
For instance, if somebody liked a girl, they would go and ask her family for her hand in marriage, the first time the women would go and ask and they would reach an agreement with the family, and the following day the men would go there.
 3 Jinan çîyan ewut?
What did the women say?
 4 Êê, meselen basî mewzuʕekeya, mesen çon “hatûyne em kitsey to, ême hatûyne xizmayetî bikeyn legeł (…) kesî êwe-w têkeł bîn, xênman têkeł bî, bîne kes û karî yektirî.
For example they would say, we have come for your daughter, we have come to become a family with you and to bond, so our blood is mixed and we become each others’ relatives.
 5 Eger ewe biguncaya duway îtir jin û, jinan legeł bûka eçûne bazarr.
If this was successful, then the women would go to the bazaar with the bride.
 6 Mesen eger îtifaqyan bikirdaya le ser, {ełê} ke razî bû ew kitse biden ew kurre, eçûne bazarr bazarrîyan ekird û ee/ altûnyan helegirt û meselen cil û bergî ewaney pêdawîstîyetî bo małe tazekey û.    
If they agreed that they would give this girl to the boy, then they would go to the bazaar, they would go shopping, buy gold, and clothes and dresses, and things she needed for the new house.
 7 Ewe ew rojey ke meselen biçûnaye bo bazarr/ bełam duwayî rojî pêș șayeke bûkeyan ebird, braderekan xoyan ebird bo ḥemame eyanșûșt û ewane (…), ḥemamî bazarr hebû.  
The day they go to the bazaar/ but the day before the wedding they would take the bride, her friends would take her to hamam and wash her (…) the bazaar had a hamam.
 8 Ewey min ke be xeyałim dê, be ḥukmî temeney ême, bełam êste ew modêle nemawe.
This is what I remember, considering my age, but now that tradition is gone.
 9 E, daykîșim basî ekird.
Yes, my mother also talked about it.
 10 Eyanbirde ḥemam, le ḥemam xweyan eșûșt û ter/ tertîbat, jin ayîn û oyînyan zor e, xweyan ezanin. Ême natuwanîn biçîne tefasîlekey ewe.
They would take her to hamam, at the hamam they would wash her and make arrangements, there are many details, they know them. We cannot get into the details.
 11 Îtir rojî ahengeke destnîșan eka, ke rojî aheng destnîșan ekira, caran be rastî nadî-w șitî wa nebû.
Then the day of the wedding would be set, and when it was set, there didn’t used to be a wedding hall.
 12 Zor ca le gerrekekan ekira. Îtir car wa bû yek ḥefte șew ḥeta beyanî duhoł û zûrrne.
Mostly it would take place in the neighbourhood. Sometimes drums and pipes would play for one week, from the evening until the morning.
 13 (…) Ya her le ber demî małeke?
In front of their house?
 14 (…) Le ber demî małeke, le gerrekeke șwênekyan pak ekirdewe-w gułopekyan helawêsî bo șewan, îtir ew nawe awrreșên ekira, îtir genc û kurr û kiçî cuwan eçûne wê, îtir ew dezgîranî ew bo xoy xenê ebû, dezgîranekey ebînî.  
In front of the house, in the neighbourhood, they would clean somewhere and hang light bulbs for the evening, then they would sprinkle water on that middle area, then young people and boys and beautiful girls would go there, so those who had lovers were very happy, they could see their lover.
 15 {Xełkekîș hebû xwa xwa bû le wê qileçî dest eka ebûwe qismet û}, îme li Kerkûkiș dewł û zurrne benawbang in.
[There were people who would take it upon themselves it was their destiny], and in Kerkuk we are also famous for drums and pipe instruments.
 16 Katî xoy ewe le ḥeftakan Kełe Çawiș bû, hezar reḥmetî lê bê, duwayî lem axîre-ș heta kû pêș wefat ke Silaḥ Dawde-w Fayîq Dawde. Êste-ș Fayiq mawe bem/ ta êstake-ș mawe.
At the time, in the seventies, it was the late Kele Cawish, later, more recently, until his death it was Salih Dawde and Faiq Dawde. Even now Faiq is there, he is still alive.
 17 Ehatin goranîyan ewut?
They came to sing?
 18 Goranî ne, dawł û zûrrne {esp}yan ekird û be musîqayan lê eda meselen dawł û zûrrne. Layê me zor baw e dawł û zûrrne-w ewane, zorișyan ḥez lê bû lay eme, îtir ḥew șew û ḥew roj eme/
Not singing, (they would play) drums and wind instruments, they would play music with drums and wind instruments. The drums and wind instruments are very common in our region, and the people like them very much, so for seven nights and days we/
 19 Be reșbełek hełeperrên?
Do women and men dance together?
 20 Ee, reșbełek bû, înca min be fikrișim dê, ew wexte-ș ʕeynen awêneyeçan daena, yêçek le pêșewe erroyî, êtir le ban xanîewe çiklêt firê edira-w pen/ de filisî-w, a pênc/ heta bîst û pênc filis û penca filisî tîya bû le gel çiklêteke.    
Yes, it was mixed, I even remember that there would be a mirror and someone would walk in front of it, then from the roof top sweets and money would be thrown down, five, even twenty-five, fifty cents along with sweets.
 21 Êtir minał xenî ebûn, bo xoyan.
So the children were very happy.
 22 Tarayî kêșaneya be serî bûkeke?
How about the styling of the bride?
 23 E tebʕen, tarayî be serî bûke, cilî kurdîyan ekire berî. Êsta ka hemûy em cile, staylêçî biłên enternașyonalyan danawe, cilêk bo bûk û zawa.  
Yes, naturally, styling the bride, they would put her in Kurdish dresses. Now they have all these styles, you could say international dress, for the bride and groom.
 24 Îtir ewe bûkeyan hênawe, lewê-ș ewe ebûwe șayî, îtir ewe be roș {carê, cardin} nanyan ekird, meselen eger dar hebaya be dar eger nabaya be ẋazyan daena, be {feremêzyan} ekird, șeș ḥewt mendzelî gewre-w eme kird goșt û mirîșk û fasûlya-w birinc û qeysî-w, {xełik ewê dawa} mêz dandira-w.      
So they would bring the bride, and a party would take place in the daytime, then they would prepare food, if there was wood {they would make a fire} with wood, if not they would light a fire with gas, there would be about six or seven big pots for meat and chicken and beans and rice and meat, the people would be there and a dinner table would be set.
 25 E to ełêy ḥew roja exayanî, ew ḥew roje çîtan ekird?  
You say it would last seven days, what did you do for seven days?
 26 Ḥew șew ḥew roj șayî ekira.
For seven days and seven nights the party would go on.
 27 Be rast?
Really?
 28 Erê weła, bes șewan nîye, êtir ehatin bo șayî heta eme rojî zawa ke wa bûkey eguwastewe. Eme ʕadet bû ewa dzaran.
Yes indeed, but not during the night, from the day of arrival at the wedding to the day that the groom takes the bride to his home. That was our tradition back then.
 29 He duwa ḥew rojeke bû ew bûke eguwazrayewe?
So after those seven days the bride is taken?
 30 E tebʕen, erê weła, min bawki xom, ke daykimî hênawe, ḥew șew û ḥew roj dawł û zûrrna kutûwyetî. Ḥew șew û hew roj, nenkim be reḥmet bê be yek dez be Birrno teqey ekird (…) Erê be Xwa.
Yes indeed, my father, when he married my mother, for seven days and nights drums and pipe instruments played. For seven nights and days, my late grandmother, with a single hand would fire a Bruno gun. I swear by God.
 31 Eytir ew ʕadet û tuqalîdeman heye le Kerkûk, î meseley șayî-w ewane.
These are our customs and traditions in Kirkuk for weddings and such things.
 32 Be zorî bû, zawe-w bûkeke le małî bawkyan emanewe, malyan daena?
Was it more common for the groom and bride to stay at the father’s house?
 33 Tebʕen, exe zirûfekey ew wexte way exwast, le ber ewey xełik wek êstake mûtemmekin nebû, meselen yekser xanûy cîya ka.
Certainly, the conditions of that time made it like that, since there were not opportunities like now, to set up a separate house immediately.
 34 Na weła car wa bû be bîst sał-iș, min xweman yaʕnî çend sał emin, çend minałî bûbû bawkim her le yek ẋurfeyek, kawile xanûyek bûyne-w ewane.    
No, sometimes even after twenty years, me, we too, that is how old I am, my father had a few children and we were still living in a single room, in a run down house.
 35 Ey ew e hebû, pêșguwastineke biłêyn dezgîranî hebê? Înca duwayî pîroz (…)?
Was there a relationship before the marriage? And then it was celebrated?
 36 Na, na ew ʕadetane nebû, yanî wek êste derî ka be yêkewe ferre lêden. Ne ew șitane, le ber ewey ew wexte ʕirf û ʕadetî êste-ș her hinde ʕayile her zor peywest in bew ʕadet û ʕirf û ʕadet û teqalîdana.    
No, such customs did not exist, not like now, to take her out and go for walks together. No, these things, at that time the customs and traditions even now, some families are very much tied to those customs and traditions.
 37 Pêyan ʕeyb e meselen kabira ḥeta ew kiçe ebête hełałișî qebûl nakan derçête derewe legełya.
They consider it shameful, even until the girl legally becomes his wife, they do not accept her going out with him.
 38 Elên eger șitêk ba, xușkêkî bê birrwa legełya yan xușkî bûk/ zawa bêt kitse bibatewe. Hênde ʕayile êsta-ș her peywest e bew ʕadet û teqalîdane.    
They say, if there is something, let her sister accompany her, or the groom’s sister should take her. Some families are even now very much tied to those customs and traditions.
 39 Arê weła, êtir duwayî bûk û zawa ew ḥefteye tewaw bû, șitêtirman heye, pê elên “edax” ême.
Yes indeed, for the bride and groom after that week is over, there is something else that we call “edax”.
 40 Edax?
Edax?
 41 Edax, ke êstake bûwete modêl elên paștêlane-w, he lew roje hedye-w darî-w șitî wa ne, ḥefteye duway ewe, kes û karî małî bûk zorrbeyan biłêyn ehatin.
Edax, which has become a form of “pashtêlane”, the same day when they give the presents and gifts and things, the week after that, most of the bride’s family would come.
 42

Le malî zawa ḥefle ekira șerbet û kêk û șekirleme hebû ew wexte-ya durustyan ekird.

They would have a party at the groom’s house, and have drinks and fun and sweets, when they would organise it.
 43 Heç kes dîyarîyêkî legeł xoy hebû. (…) hebû parey ehêna, hebû meselen seladzî [taʕrocî] ḥeseb û imkanîyetekey xoy, edaẋyan pê ewut.
Everyone would have a present with them, some would bring money, or for example a fridge, according to their means, and they called it “edax.”
 44 Ew edaẋe-ș zor bawe la me, le ber ewey be ḥukmi keltûr, firekeltûr e Kerkuk, kelîmey edax, kelîmeyeçî turkmanî ye, zor be karî dehên{rête}.
This “edax” is very common among us, since in terms of culture, Kirkuk is multicultural, the word “edax” is a Turkman word, very commonly used.
 45 Yanî çi ye edax?
So what is “edax”?
 46

Edax, axe wek ḥeftane eka, wek ḥeftane eka, êtir, hendê mintiqe xoman kurdewarî hînî pê elên/ nazanim wiła șitêtirî pê elên nayête zihnim.

“Edax” is like “heftanak”, like “heftanak”, some Kurdish regions call it/ I do not know they call it something else, I can’t remember.
 47 Eme le małî bûk û zawake (…)?
This is at the house of the bride and groom?
 48 Etsine mal bûk û zawe lewê êtir xełik etsin bo malî, bûke eçête bo malî tazekey bûke, dîyarîy bo eben.
Yes at the bride and groom’s house, the people go to the bride’s house, they go to her new house, they take presents for her.
 49 Îtir hemû meselen ingusîley altûn, milwankey altûn, cilî xewe, desê dzilê kurdîye, meselen desê dzilî medenî ye.
Presents like golden rings, golden bracelets, night gowns, Kurdish dresses, or modern dresses.
 50 Be heman șêwe bo zawe, meselen ênca xelik hebû parey daana.
In the same way, for the groom, there were people who would bring money for example.
 51 Ew roje-ș her heleperîn bo xoyan (…)
And they continue to dance on that day too.
 52 Be rast hełeperrîn?
Really, they dance?
 53 Bez taybet be afret e.
Especially the women.
 54 Afret hełeperrê?
The women dance?
 55 Taybet be afret e, taybet be afret e, be pîyaw nîye, pîyaw natsê, ʕeyb e, bes jin etsê.
Especially the women, especially the women, not the men, the men don’t go there, it is considered improper, only the women go.
 56 Ey zawa lewê ebê?
Is the groom there?
 57 Na, na zawa dê bexêrhatinyan eka duwa eçête derewe.
No, no the groom comes to welcome them and then leaves.
 58 Aha
Aha
 59 Bez bexêrhatinyan eka.
He only welcomes them.
 60 Ê ê, wa ye.
Yes, it is so.
 61 Êê, ew ʕadet û teqalîdeman heye le Kerkûk. Belam êste/    
So we have these customs and traditions in Kirkuk. But now/
 62 Ey duwayî ke yekem minałyan ebêt, diyar e her xełk etsin bo małyan?
What about after they have a first child, do people go to their house again?
 63 Tebʕen, tebʕen minalyan ebêt xelk eçê bo layan, pîrozbayîyan lê eken, ʕeynen bo minaleke-ș hedîye eben, ee, ca/ wekû rêzlênanêk beramber yekem minale ca șitekî pê elên Cunaḥ.
Of course, of course, they have a child, and people go to visit them, they congratulate them, they bring presents for the child, to honour the first child there is something called “Cunah”.
 64 Îḥtimal e ewaney cwêyan lê bê bizanin, wek parçe altûne le pirçî minalekey ebestin bo çaw û zarî șitî wa-w, yanî ʕadet û teqalîdê xot ezanî.
Probably those who hear it will know it, it is like a piece of gold they tie to the child’s hair to protect against the evil eye and such things, you know the customs and traditions.
 65 Em xurafatane heye le kurdewarî xoman, be taybetî le Kerkûk-îș. Her wa ebêtewe/
We have these superstitions in our Kurdish culture, especially in Kirkuk. It is like that.
 66 Înca nawnanan-îș heye, ewe nîye exwênin be gwêy minałekeya?
Is there way of naming, like singing into the child’s ear?
 67 Ebê bang den le gwêy ewe hîç, êtir eben layî mela-w seyîd û waneșyan heye la/.
Yes, they sing the prayer in their ear, they take them to the Imam or for us, the Seyyid.
 68 Șitêtirișyan heye, ʕeynen meselen, ew minałe tozê gewre bû, îtir sûnet heye, ḥefley sûnet heye, zor dza eken. Her minałeke sûnet eken, {dey} ḥefley bo eken, ewaneyan heye.
There is also something else, when this child grows up a bit, there is circumcision, there is a circumcision party. They circumcise the boy, they hold a party for him, they have that.